Cannabis cultivation is a term that describes growing cannabis, either in a commercial facility or in a home garden. Cannabis cultivation can occur outdoors, but it is much more likely to be indoors in a hydroponic (soilless) set-up.
Cannabis cultivation is nothing more nor less than the growing of marijuana. If you live in a state where medical marijuana has been legalized and you have a cannabis card, you are permitted to grow a certain number of plants at home for personal use. The term also pertains to commercial growing operations.
In the majority of circumstances, cannabis cultivation is best done indoors. For the home cultivator, that can be done relatively easily, although it will mean that you need to turn one of the rooms in your home into a grow space. Keep in mind that this does not need to be a "room". It can be any area big enough for your needs, ranging from the corner of a room to a closet to a whole room.
Cannabis cultivation is not something you should rush into. Start small. Growing only a couple of plants at first can help you get your feet wet without spending a lot of money on hydroponic equipment, lighting, environmental control equipment and more. It is also important to be prepared for the learning curve and the obstacles that you'll experience. Plant diseases are common, as are pests and various other hazards that can ruin your plants quickly.
When establishing a cannabis grow space, make sure that you have the space blacked out to ensure that light does not enter during "down" periods, or you risk the production of male flowers, instead of female flowers. You should also make sure the grow room is kept scrupulously clean, and that you have the best grow lights for each stage of maturation in your plants.