Cannabis cultivation is a term that refers to growing cannabis, either in a commercial facility or in a home garden. Cannabis cultivation can take place outdoors, however it is much more likely to be indoors in a hydroponic (soilless) set-up.
Cannabis cultivation is nothing more nor less than the growing of cannabis. If you reside in a state where medical marijuana has been legalized and you have a cannabis card, you are permitted to grow a particular number of plants at home for personal use. The term also pertains to commercial growing operations.
In the majority of circumstances, cannabis cultivation is best done indoors. For the home grower, that can be done fairly easily, although it will mean that you need to turn one of the rooms in your home into a grow space. Keep in mind that this does not need to be a "room". It can be any area big enough for your needs, ranging from the corner of a room to a closet to an entire room.
Cannabis cultivation is not something you should rush into. Start small. Growing just a couple of plants at first can help you get your feet wet without spending a fortune on hydroponic equipment, lighting, environmental control equipment and more. It is also important to be prepared for the learning curve and the obstacles that you'll experience. Plant diseases are common, as are pests and other hazards that can ruin your plants quickly.
When establishing a cannabis grow room, make sure that you have the area blacked out so that light does not enter during "down" periods, or you risk the production of male flowers, instead of female flowers. You should also make sure the grow space is kept scrupulously clean, and that you have the best grow lights for each stage of maturation in your plants.