Cannabis cultivation is a term that describes growing cannabis, either in a commercial facility or in a home garden. Cannabis cultivation can take place outdoors, however it is much more likely to be indoors in a hydroponic (soilless) set-up.
Cannabis cultivation is nothing more nor less than the growing of marijuana. If you reside in a state where medical marijuana has been legalized and you have a marijuana card, you are permitted to grow a particular number of plants at home for personal use. The term also applies to commercial growing operations.
In the majority of instances, cannabis cultivation is best done indoors. For the home grower, that can be done relatively conveniently, although it will mean that you need to convert one of the rooms in your home into a grow space. Note that this doesn't need to be a "room". It can be any space large enough for your needs, ranging from the corner of a room to a closet to an entire room.
Cannabis cultivation is not something you should rush into. Start small. Growing only a couple of plants at first can help you get your feet wet without investing a lot of money on hydroponic equipment, lighting, environmental control equipment and more. It is also important to be prepared for the learning curve and the obstacles that you'll experience. Plant diseases are common, as are pests and other hazards that can ruin your plants quickly.
When establishing a cannabis grow space, make sure that you have the area blacked out to make sure that light does not penetrate during "down" periods, or you risk the production of male flowers, rather than female flowers. You need to also be sure the grow room is kept scrupulously clean, and that you have the best grow lights for each stage of maturation in your plants.