Cannabis cultivation is a term that refers to growing cannabis, either in a commercial establishment or in a home garden. Cannabis cultivation can occur outdoors, however it is much more likely to be indoors in a hydroponic (soilless) set-up.
Cannabis cultivation is nothing more nor less than the growing of cannabis. If you reside in a state where medical marijuana has been legalized and you have a marijuana card, you are allowed to grow a particular number of plants at home for personal use. The term also pertains to commercial growing operations.
In the majority of circumstances, cannabis cultivation is best done indoors. For the home cultivator, that can be done fairly easily, although it will mean that you need to turn one of the rooms in your home into a grow space. Keep in mind that this does not need to be a "room". It can be any area big enough for your needs, ranging from the corner of a room to a closet to a whole room.
Cannabis cultivation is not something you should rush into. Start small. Growing only a couple of plants initially can help you get your feet wet without investing a fortune on hydroponic equipment, lighting, environmental control equipment and more. It is also important to be prepared for the learning curve and the obstacles that you'll experience. Plant diseases are common, as are pests and various other threats that can kill your plants quickly.
When establishing a cannabis grow room, make sure that you have the area blacked out to ensure that light does not penetrate during "down" periods, or you risk the production of male flowers, rather than female flowers. You need to also be sure the grow area is kept scrupulously clean, and that you have the best grow lights for each stage of maturation in your plants.